WHAT WAS HAPPENING IN THE U.S. IN 1901?
1901 found the U.S. still in the Progressive Era (1890s-1920s), a time of intense social and political change in American society. One objective of the Progressive movement was eliminating corruption in government. By taking down corrupt politicians a more direct democracy would be established, or so went the theory. Followers also sought regulation of monopolies (trust busting) and corporations through antitrust laws. Women’s suffrage was promoted to bring the “purer” female vote into the field. Another theme was Efficiency Movement that could identify old ways of doing things that needed to be modernized.
Many activists joined efforts to reform local government, public education, medicine, finance, insurance, industry, railroads, churches, and many other areas. Progressives transformed, professionalized and made “scientific” the social sciences, especially history, economics, and political science. At first, the movement operated chiefly at local levels; later, it expanded to state and national levels. Progressives drew support from the middle class, lawyers, teachers, physicians, ministers and business people. The Progressives strongly supported scientific methods and felt that old-fashioned ways meant waste and inefficiency.
The Philippine-American War had gone on since 1899 and would finally end in 1902.
- January 5 – Typhoid fever breaks out in a Seattle jail, the first of two major typhoid outbreaks in 1901.
- January 10 – In the first great Texas gusher, oil is discovered at Spindletop in Beaumont, Texas.
- March 4 – United States President William McKinley begins his second term. Theodore Roosevelt is sworn in as Vice President of the United States.
- April 25 – New York State becomes the first to require automobile license plates.
- May 1 – The Pan-American Exposition world’s fair opens in Buffalo, New York, running through November 2, 1901.
- May 17 – The U.S. stock market crashes for the first time.
- June 22 to July 31 – The worst heat wave in recorded U.S. history until that time is estimated to have killed more than 9,500 people.
- September 6 – American anarchist Leon Czolgosz shoots President William McKinley in the Temple of Music at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. McKinley dies eight days later.
- September 14 – Theodore Roosevelt succeeds William McKinley as President of the United States.
- September 26 – The body of President Abraham Lincoln is exhumed and reinterred in concrete several feet thick.
- October 24 – 63-year-old Michigan schoolteacher Annie Edson Taylor goes over Niagara Falls in a barrel and survives.
- October 29 – Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of William McKinley, is executed by electrocution.
- December 3 – U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt delivers a 20,000-word speech to the House of Representatives asking Congress to curb the power of trusts “within reasonable limits.”
THE PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION
The changes, and access to those changes, in the world of technology and innovation between the 1898 Trans-Mississippi Exposition and the 1901 Pan-American were stupendous! Among many, many other innovations, the Kodak Brownie camera had been introduced in February, 1900 and it was affordable so that the average personcould own one, operate it and have their film developed into photographs or “snapshots”. Americans became shutterbugs both at home and on their travels. Moving pictures, while not at the fingertips of every vacationer as in modern times, were becoming more and more common, with most Americans having some experience with the (very short) films offered for entertainment at the time.
Coming on the heels of the Spanish-American War (1898), the Pan-American Exposition took place at a time when the United States was expanding commercially, politically, and even militarily in Latin America. Its stated purpose was to promote the economic interests and purported solidarity of the Western Hemisphere. The festival was similar to world’s fairs in emphasizing technology, but differed from them in not celebrating a historical event and in the more limited regional origins of the participating countries.
Planning for the event began in 1897 with the formation of the Pan-American Exposition Company, but was delayed by the Spanish-American War. Buffalo, New York, was chosen as the host city, and in July 1898, Congress allocated $500,000 for the project. In close proximity to the popular tourist attraction of Niagara Falls, Buffalo was easily accessible by railroad and boasted more paved streets (all with electric streetlights) than any other city in the world. In 1899, Exposition organizers leased 350 acres of farmland a half-hour drive from downtown and began construction of the buildings and landscaping of the grounds. Opening ceremonies were held on May 20, 1901 although the gates had opened to the public on May 1, and 8 million visitors over six months paid the 50¢ entrance fee (half-price on Sundays). Daily attendance averaged more than 40,000 between August and closing day on November 1, 1901.
The Pan-American Exposition challenged frugal 1901 people to get away from a visit without emptying their pockets. Because people were not permitted to leave the grounds and return later in the same day without additional charge, many local visitors brought their own lunches in shoeboxes to avoid paying the food concessionaires on the grounds. So did travelers coming to the grounds after an overnight train from neighboring states; they deposited their lunch baskets in their respective state buildings on the grounds until lunch time. It was possible, perhaps, to walk through the Midway, looking but resisting the cries of the carnival barkers in the exhibits who attempted to entice paying customers through the doors of their exhibits, but not likely.
Visitors could find free samples of food or beverages or free souvenirs in the Manufacturers and Liberal Arts Building, free sample soap bars in the Larkin Building, free machine-woven ribbons, bookmarks, etc. These, in addition to free brochures and advertising cards, enabled those who could afford only the costs of getting to the Exposition to carry away remembrances of their experience. For others, there were seemingly endless opportunities to purchase souvenirs both small and large, dramatic and mundane.
The grounds of the Pan-American Exposition were laid out in an inverted T, and were nicknamed “Rainbow City” because of the brightly colored buildings as depicted by John Ross Key. A 375-foot-tall electrical tower, topped by a Goddess of Light statue, was powered by Niagara Falls and illuminated the entire area. Intending the wood-framed buildings to be temporary structures, designers fashioned plaster on chicken wire to resemble stone facades (creating a gooey problem during the rainy summer). The only exception was the New York State Building, which was built to last in white marble and today houses the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society. Shown below are some video clips of various sights at the Exposition.
The United States government erected three buildings housing exhibits from federal departments and agencies, as well as from the new American dependencies of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines. The most popular of the U.S. government exhibits was the Patent Office section, where visitors could see X-rays revealing their skeletons, a telephone switchboard in operation, various types of motion-picture machines, pictures sent by telegraph, electric typewriters, and numerous other contraptions, some of which never gained a mass or niche market.
The Agriculture Building addressed the advances and challenges of scientific and mechanized farming, while the Horticulture Building sheltered an array of flowers and plants from the different nations. A nearby conservatory housed food-plants, including teas, spices, fruit trees, and a miniature coffee plantation. The Mines Building presented extraction machinery, mineral ores, and metallurgy. The Ethnology Building concentrated on American Indian artifacts, while paintings and sculptures were found in the Art Building. Athletic competitions, livestock and automobile exhibitions, and Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show took place in the Stadium. Nations and states also had their own buildings.The Machinery and Transportation Building housed agricultural machinery, automobiles, bicycles, boats, horse carriages, railroads, and steam engines. The Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building showcased manufactured products from the member nations. Among the interesting gadgets on display were cash registers, automatic addressing machines, shoe-making machines, gas stoves, decorative fixtures for the formerly austere bathroom, and food-processing and -packaging apparatuses. The building also contained exhibits on jewelry, glassware, silverware, and textiles. The Liberal Arts department featured mechanical musical instruments, such as electric organs and player pianos. Music concerts on holidays of the participating nations were held in the 2,200-seat auditorium of the ornate Temple of Music, as were daily recitals on one of the largest pipe organs in the United States. The videos below offer an organized tour through the Exposition.
The complete “Official Catalogue and Guide Book to the Pan-American Exposition with Maps of Exposition and Illustrations” is available online. The Catalogue is a resource for much information about the organizers of and suppliers to the Exposition, with descriptions of the buildings, the attractions and the many, many exhibitors. No detail was spared in 1901!
Exciting sights and sounds at the Exposition
In addition to the many beautiful buildings and the almost unimaginable setting, visitors were exposed to literally thousands of exhibits and attractions. Some of the favorites were:
- Electric lighting, using hydroelectric power generated 20 miles away at Niagara Falls, was a fascination to many. Each evening, hundreds of thousands of eight-watt light bulbs were gradually illuminated and outlined the buildings, reflecting pools, fountains and sculptures that occupied the grounds. This was the first massive display of electric power to take place in the United States. In the eyes of people accustomed to gas, oil, and candlelight, the effect was both beautiful and startling. Thomas Edison (or his assistants) even recorded it with one of his early moving picture cameras.
Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show and another Indian Congress brought representatives of various tribes together with famous frontier characters. Both Calamity Jane and the great Sioux leader Red Cloud were present. The Indians demonstrated war and ghost dances, with their songs and musical accompaniments. Mock battles were featured in the Stadium between the Indians and the frontiersmen of Buffalo Bill’s Show.
- In the Esquimaux (Eskimo) Village a large company of natives appeared in traditional dress, showing the manners and customs of their homeland, and from the shops and stores they sold their merchandise. Below are some videos not only from the Esquimaux Village, but also from other exhibits on the Midway.
- The Trip to the Moon journey was made on the airship “Luna“, and thrilled everyone who went aboard. In the domain of the Man-in-the-Moon, the visitor found countless things to cause wonder and amusement, and after a stroll among the streets and shops of the earth’s satellite, the visitor returned to earth, safe and sound.
- The Aerio-cycle resembled a “teeter-totter of boyhood days”, constructed on a grand scale. It consisted of two revolving wheels for carrying passengers, at the ends of a structural steel beam. As it operated, when one wheel was down, the other was at an altitude of 275 feet, affording a wonderful view of the Exposition.
- Darkness and Dawn was a then-regarded realistic representation of a departed spirit, whose life on earth has not been exemplary. The visitor witnessed the punishment meted out to scandal-mongers, umbrella borrowers and other offenders. After the seas of fire were passed, beautiful scenes to delight the eye appeared.
- The Old Southern Plantation replicated the real thing in its minutest detail, giving the visitor an interesting glimpse of the sunny South. Real slave quarters and log cabins were brought from the South and were occupied by African Americans whose predecessors may have been slaves in the South. Dancing and other pastimes were featured, as well as displays showing the work of a plantation.
- Darkest Africa was a collection of some 35 different native tribes with their ancient weapons, household gods and primitive handicrafts. Native workmen showed their skill in working of gold and silver. The enclosure contained sections of villages in their authentic state, with a theater where free exhibitions of native dances and entertainment were given.
- The House Upside Down was the oddest attraction on the grounds and represented a castle sanding on its roof and battlements. The visitor entered through the roof and after going up – or down – several flights of stairs, reached the cellar, which was converted into a garden. The apartments were elaborately furnished, and the topsy-turvy arrangement appeared throughout.
- Cleopatra’s Temple was a splendid building of Egyptian architecture with grand paintings illustrating events in the life of the Egyptian Queen.
- The Beautiful Orient feature was a dazzling, realistic display of the charms of the East, representing the salient characteristics of Eastern countries, with Oriental streets, buildings, costumes, animals, natives, and the authentic artifacts.
- Dreamland was also known as the Mirror Maze. Behind mirrors were loads of fun for those who attempted to explore its recesses.
- Alt Nurnberg represented the quaint old German town of Nuremburg. A street of this old town was reproduced with strict attention to the details of the original and within the buildings were shops, restaurants and other places of business in exactly the same manner as found in the actual old town.
- Food and drink: Reportedly, popcorn was first widely introduced at the Pan-American. The Exposition was home to restaurants of every price – there were ample opportunities to try food from far-away lands and to have a beer or two. Exposition visitors were introduced to a variety of foods from distant lands at various concessions and exhibits. These included chilies and tamales from Mexico, tea flavored ice cream at Fair Japan, red peppers and tropical products from across Latin America, and a host of beverages. The types of foods served, some prepared with seasonings unfamiliar to most North Americans probably shocked many a conservative palate. One could also enjoy a sandwich at a stand or a multi-course meal in swank surroundings. Local hotels and boarding houses also offered meals.
- Americans were still fascinated by the Infant Incubator as they had been at earlier world’s fairs. Many new and original devices were displayed, and a medical team cared for actual premature or fragile babies in the exhibit.
- Fair Japan was a Japanese village that featured girls in native costumes serving tea, and geisha girls entertaining with dancing. A free outdoor performance ran continuously and in the theater was a performance by the native jugglers, dancers, and other entertainers.
- Venice in America was a perfect replica of the living city in Italy, with palaces, shops, bridges and canals, gondolas and gondoliers. Visitors could ride in the gondolas and be steered through the winding palace-lined waterways, while the ear was charmed with sweet songs and the music of the mandolin or guitar.
DEATH OF A PRESIDENT
In September, 1901 President and Mrs. McKinley visited the Pan-American Exhibition. It would be their last trip together.
Leon Czolgosz, a 28-year-old anarchist who believed government leaders squelched individual liberty, also traveled to Buffalo. His purpose was to kill the popular president. Disgruntled over losing his job in the Panic of 1893, he had spent some years on his parents’ farm, work-ing little. He had attended a speech by anarchist Emma Goldman in May, 1901 but it did not encourage violence.
On September 5th, McKinley gave a speech at the Exposition. He urged an end to American isolationism. He proposed trade agreements that would allow U.S. manufacturers new markets. “The period of exclusiveness is past. The expansion of our trade and commerce is the pressing problem. Commercial wars are unprofitable.” The crowd of some 50,000 greeted his speech with loud applause; at its conclusion, the President sent his wife to rest at the home where they were being hosted while he remained to see the lights at the Exposition.
The next day, shortly after 4:00 p.m., McKinley was greeting people at the Temple of Music in the Exposition. In line to shake McKinley’s hand, Czolgosz pulled out a .32 caliber short-barreled Johnson revolver, hidden in a handkerchief, and shot the President twice.
As doctors, in a state of shock, tried to save the president, an X-ray machine was idling in the Exposition Patent Office. Had physicians known how to use that device, it may have saved McKinley’s life. Instead, he died eight days after the shooting. The official cause of death was “gangrene which affected the stomach around the bullet wounds.”
By the end of the month, Czolgosz had been convicted of murder. He was condemned to die in Auburn Prison’s electric chair. Sentence was carried out on the 29th of October, 1901. His remains were doused with sulfuric acid so no one would steal the body or Czolgosz’ clothes.
As with all the great expositions and world’s fairs, the Pan-American’s presence was temporary, but its impact was lasting. In preparing his final report, Exposition Director General Buchanan was lavish in appraising the Exposition’s benefits. For the nation and the Hemisphere it had fulfilled the mission projected by its sponsors – the promotion of “commercial well-being and good understanding” among the American Republics. For western New York it had brought general growth in bank deposits and trust accounts, steady employment and rising wage scales to labor, and new prestige to Buffalo as “a city of enterprise, stability, and business energy.”
THE 1901 PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION COMMEMORATIVE POSTAGE STAMPS
The first set of 20th century commemorative stamps celebrated the Pan-American Exposition, which opened in Buffalo, New York on May 1, 1901. On that same day, “the most artistic series ever issued by the (Post Office) Department,” the Pan-American Exposition commemoratives, went on sale. They were available at Post Offices throughout the United States for only six months, until the Exposition ended in November. Designed by R. Ostrander Smith, each stamp celebrated a different transportation technology from the period. They were printed by the Bureau of Printing and Engraving using a bicolor process (as had originally been intended for the Trans-Mississippians three years earlier). They are all labeled “Commemorative Series 1901”.
Three of the Pan-American Exposition stamps exist as inverts, the 1¢, 2¢ and 4¢ denominations. To make the stamps as appealing as possible, and to further emphasize technological progress, the stamps were printed in two colors – the subject of the stamp in black, and the frames each colored according to their denomination. Using the printing techniques of the day required two passes through the printing press in order to print in two colors. The two-pass method introduced the possibility of an invert error. Should a sheet of stamps become reversed during the printing process, then the vignette (design) portion of the stamp would be upside-down relative to the frame. Inevitably, such errors occurred. There were many conflicting accounts of the discoveries of the various inverted Pan-Americans, but ultimately about 250 of the 1¢ variety and 150 of 2¢ variety are known to have been printed. The Post Office Department had the Bureau print an additional several hundred inverted of each denomination, and also contrived a 4¢ invert. The 4¢ invert was never found at a Post Office – only the contrived examples are known. Most of the intentional inverts were marked “Specimen” as was appropriate procedure. The specimen copies were supposed to be used as reference examples, however, as many as 400 of the 4¢ were known to exist without being designated “Specimen”. The provenance of most of these intentional inverts is known. More than half of them were given to the Post Office Department and now reside in our nation’s archives. Many were given to various Washington, D.C. and Pan-American Exposition dignitaries. It is known that the Assistant Postmaster General of the day gave away about 172 of the inverts on his own, keeping at least one for himself. It is estimated that 97 of these purposely created errors are in the hands of private owners today.
The naturally occurring 1¢ and 2¢ inverts; the contrived and controversial 4¢ invert
In addition to the invert stamps, other errors related to the difficulty of aligning the vignette within the framework are widely recognized. The 1¢ stamp, featuring a lake steamer in the vignette, is well known to exist in “fast ship”, “slow ship”, “sinking ship” and “flying ship” variations as shown below.
The 2¢ stamp also features “fast”, “slow” and other variations.
The variations shown are relatively common and most people interested in philately have at least seen some of them. Many collectors, however, don’t consider their Pan-American stamp collection complete until they have a representative group of the variations. The 5¢, 8¢ and 10¢ stamps are also known to have centering issues, but not as many and not as recognizable as those in the smaller denominations.
A fairly large number of each Pan-American was printed, and the highest-priced stamp in the set was only 10¢. As a result, all stamps in the set were within reach of most collectors at the time. The first bicolor commemorative series, the Pan-Americans were highly appealing visually and were very popular. The set is treasured by philatelists to this day.
1¢ Stamp: Fast Lake Navigation
The first bicolor U.S. commemorative ever printed, the 1¢ Pan-American featured a black steamship (the “vignette” or “center”), printed first, surrounded by a green frame, printed second. The vignette was engraved by G. F. C. Smillie from a photograph, and the frame was engraved by Robert Ponickau. Because of the two-step printing method, the placement of the ship could differ from sheet to sheet; in fact, it could appear anywhere inside the frame. The result is a number of variants, including “fast”, “slow”, and “sinking” ships, along with about 600 to 700 accidentally “inverted” ones that are highly valued today. Although these latter stamps are referred to as having inverted centers, it is actually the frame that is inverted, since it was printed afterwards. The center print run for this issue began on March 6, 1901, and frame printing started on March 15.
The ship pictured on “Fast Lake Navigation” was the “City of Alpena”, a steamer that plied the Great Lakes. Built in 1893, its home port was Detroit, Michigan. One cent was the postcard rate, and this stamp was also very useful for adding to postage on other more expensive items. A large number of these stamps were printed: 91,401,500 in all. The 1¢ “Fast Lake Navigation” always ranks highly in consideration of the “100 Greatest American Stamps”.
2¢ Stamp: Fast Express
The New York “Empire State Express”, one of the country’s most modern and luxurious trains in 1901, was featured on the carmine and black 2¢ Pan-American. In 1891, the train set a new speed record when it covered 436 miles from New York City to Buffalo in only 7 hours and 6 minutes (including stops), an average speed of 61.4 miles per hour. Then, in 1893, outfitted with a special locomotive called No. 999, the Empire State Express was used on a special run from Syracuse to the Columbian Exposition in Chicago. During its journey, it reached 112.5 miles per hour. Part of the New York Central & Hudson River Railroads system, it traversed New York State, site of the Pan-American Exposition. In fact, it has been estimated that this train carried more than 60% of the visitors who attended the event.
The vignette and frame for this stamp were engraved by Marcus W. Baldwin and Lyman F. Ellis. They used as their model for the vignette a photograph of the Empire State Express, taken by A. P. Yates of Syracuse while the train was moving at 60 miles an hour. Because 2¢ paid the first-class domestic postage rate, this stamp was the most commonly used in the series, with a total print run of 209,759,700. The 2¢ “Fast Express” also ranks highly in consideration of the “100 Greatest American Stamps”.
Like the 1¢ stamp, the “Fast Express” had its share of “fast” and “slow” varieties, along with a few inverts, treasured by collectors. The inverts occurred on two sheets of 100 stamps each, one carmine and the other scarlet. Only 158 “Fast Express” inverts are known to exist today.
4¢ Stamp: Automobile
The orange brown and black 4¢ Pan-American was the first stamp to depict an automobile. The image, taken from an “Electric Vehicle Service” flyer of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, shows an electric hansom cab used to transport travelers to and from the railroad station in Washington, D.C., along with a chauffeur and passenger. The passenger was reported at the time to be Samuel Hedges, a representative of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The United States Capitol Building is shown in the background of the vignette. The vignette and frame for this stamp were engraved by Marcus W. Baldwin and Lyman F. Ellis. As one of the commemorative stamp issue announcing the Pan-American Exposition, the stamp carries a tragic irony. After being shot during his visit to the Fair, President McKinley was rushed to the hospital in a Riker electric ambulance.
The 4¢ “Automobile” stamp paid double the first-class domestic rate. The United States Bureau of Printing and Engraving produced a total of 5,737,100 of them. The 4¢ “Automobile” is another stamp mentioned as a favorite when the “best” stamps are discussed.
Like the earlier stamps in the series, the printing of the 4¢ “Automobile” produced approximately 200 – 400 inverted centers. This time, however, they were produced intentionally, and made available only to collectors rather than being sold at regular Post Offices. Many inverts were further distinguished by being hand-stamped “Specimen” in violet ink. Because they were not true errors, these “inverts” caused a great uproar in the philatelic community of the time. The result was an official investigation into the printing of these special variety stamps. The investigation culminated in a report from the Assistant Attorney General to President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904, officially exonerating postal officials from wrongdoing. The stir, however, was sufficient to derail Postal Department plans to issue intentional “inverts” in the higher denominations of Pan-Americans. Single sheets of the 5¢, 8¢ and 10¢ “inverts” were printed but subsequently destroyed. Despite the clamor at the time, these inverts are highly valued by collectors today.
5¢ Stamp: Bridge at Niagara Falls
The blue and black 5¢ Pan-American stamp depicted what was then the longest single-span steel bridge in the world, crossing the Niagara River near Buffalo, site of the Pan-American Exposition. The vignette shows two trolley cars on the bridge, passing between the United States and Canada, set in an ultramarine frame. The vignette and frame for this stamp were engraved by Marcus W. Baldwin and Lyman F. Ellis. The Upper Steel Arch Bridge, also known as Honeymoon Bridge and the Falls View Bridge, collapsed during an ice-melt flood on January 27, 1938. Five cents covered the first-class letter rate to Europe. In all, 7,201,300 stamps were printed. As with other stamps of this issue, the 5¢ “Bridge at Niagara Falls” ranks consistently high with philatelists as a favorite.
8¢ Stamp: Canal Locks at Sault de Ste Marie
The brown violet and black 8¢ Pan-American shows the canal locks at Sault St. Marie, Michigan, with a tug and two ore boats. Completed in 1895, the “Soo Locks” were, at the time of the printing of this stamp, the largest in the world, and the first to be operated electrically. They were part of a navigation system which connected the Great Lakes region to the Atlantic Ocean, opening interior Canada and the Upper Midwest to shipping. The vignette and frame for this stamp were engraved by Marcus W. Baldwin and Lyman F. Ellis. A total of 4,921,700 of these stamps were produced; they covered the cost of domestic registered mail. Once again, as with the other Pan-American stamps, the canal stamp is a firm favorite of philatelists and collectors.
10¢ Stamp: Fast Ocean Navigation
The brown and black 10¢ Pan-American depicts the ocean liner “St. Paul”, built in Philadelphia in 1894. The first commercial vessel commissioned for the Spanish-American War, it was 553 feet long and weighed 14,810 tons. While deployed near Cuba, it captured a British steamer and sailing ship and disabled a Spanish torpedo boat destroyer. After the war ended, it became an ocean liner again, surviving two collisions. While being outfitted for World War I military service, it capsized. It returned briefly to civilian use, and was finally scrapped in 1923.
The vignette and frame for this stamp were engraved by Marcus W. Baldwin and Lyman F. Ellis. Ten cents paid both the domestic registered mail fee and first-class postage. In all, 5,043,700 of these stamps were printed. It should be noted that philatelists and collectors not only place high regard in each of the Pan-American stamps individually, but also in the collection as a whole.